SOLO Taxonomy in Music Education Cover

SOLO Taxonomy in Music Education

Developing high-quality musicians through a reflective learning environment

In exploring many aspects of music teaching and learning, this book shows how easy and rewarding it can be to implement and develop SOLO as a model of learning. Topics include how to use SOLO in tracking musical progress, closing the gap between current understanding and a desired goal, eliciting feedback and developing self-regulation in music. A specific focus is how SOLO can enhance and prompt deeper thinking in the core activities of performing, composing and improvising, listening and appraising.

Ages: 5-15 | Pages: 80 | Code: 51063 | ISBN: 9781776555048

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Picture of Pam Hook

Pam Hook

Pam Hook is an educational consultant who advises schools and institutions in New Zealand, Australia, Denmark, Malaysia, Singapore, Hong Kong, Japan and the Pacific Islands on developing curricula and pedagogies for learning to learn based on SOLO Taxonomy. She is a popular keynote speaker at conferences. Pam is author of more than 25 books on SOLO Taxonomy, including titles translated into Danish, and has developed a series of SOLO web-based apps, Apple iPad apps and YouTube videos. She hosts collaborative online communities for SOLO practitioners on Twitter @arti_choke @globalsolo and Pinterest
Picture of Nikki Booth

Nikki Booth

Nikki Booth is a senior teacher, examiner, academic and former freelance concert pianist based in Staffordshire, United Kingdom. After a number of years teaching in and leading music and modern foreign languages departments, he is now advisor for assessment research and development at Wolgarston High School, Staffordshire, where he continues to teach. Since completing his Masters in Teaching and Learning in 2014, and developing a keen interest in educational assessment, Nikki is studying part-time for a PhD at Birmingham City University. He has a particular interest in using formative assessment to improve teaching and learning, especially in music education. Email him at:
Picture of Alison Price

Alison Price

Alison Price is Head of Learning Area in arts and Teacher in Charge of music at Wakatipu High School, Queenstown, New Zealand. Here she oversees and runs the academic and extra-curricular programmes for Year 9–13 students. Her aim is to develop music programmes that give students the skills needed for a future-focused environment, including by using the skills of musicians within the industry and encouraging "real" experiences wherever possible. Outside of school, she has helped establish a community-based music programme to provide broader music learning within the Queenstown basin.

Lauren Fobister

Lauren Fobister has worked in primary school music education in Australia since 2013. She has a passion for developing critical and creative thinking skills and helping students to form cross-curricular connections that create meaning in their learning. Early in her career, after attending a Pam Hook course, she has been using SOLO Taxonomy in her music classroom and encouraging and supporting colleagues to do so too.


1. SOLO Taxonomy and music education5
Why music education matters5
Introducing SOLO Taxonomy5
Why SOLO matters in the music classroom7
2. Musical progress9
Tracking progress in music9
Using SOLO to show progress in music11
Using SOLO with criterion-referenced rubrics16
Using SOLO to support differentiation20
3. Formative assessment for teacher inquiry23
What is teacher inquiry?23
What is formative assessment?24
How schools are using SOLO in formative assessment26
4. Reducing the gap between current understanding and learning goal29
Establishing prior knowledge29
Planning with constructive alignment32
Setting SOLO-based learning intentions and success criteria35
Questioning to progress learning40
5. Feedback and self-regulation44
Providing effective feedback44
Developing self-regulated learners48
6. Performing, composing and improvising, and listening and appraising52
Classroom performing52
Classroom composing and improvising55
Classroom listening and appraising63
7. Supporting student musicians in the home68
How parents can use SOLO to help their children's learning69
Five key parental behaviours to build musicianship71
Thinking critically about a parent's role72
Index of exhibits78